As the manufacturing industry shifts from physical assets toward cyber-physical systems, automation and data-exchange further progress smart factories. Efficient Conversion of Solar Energy to Biomass and Electricity : The solar energy can be converted into biomass and two methods were combined and full solar spectrum is utilised for producing the micro algae systems. During Second World War Stansted Mountfitchet was used by the RAF and the USAAF as a bomber airfield and as a major maintenance depot. Old Roger is a figure that is said to primarily haunt the Norfolk Breckland, playing on a beaten up flute that summons storms. During the war, one man claimed to see Roger in the RAF base, the storm following the sighting resulted in an impending German bombing raid on Mildenhall being cancelled. In some sensors, the input-output characteristic follows a different nonlinear trend, depending on whether input increase or decrease, as in figure 2. For example, a certain pressure sensor could produce a different output voltage when the input pressure varies from zero to full scale and then back to zero. When the measurement is not perfectly reversible, the sensor will show its hysteresis. If a sensor exhibits hysteresis, the input-output relationship is not unique, but depends on the direction change to the input value of sensor. This project is used to design an obstacle sensor without using a microcontroller. This sensor is used in many applications and it is inexpensive. Furthermore, this project can be enhanced to the fire alarm systems by changing the sensor. TIG Welding is often used to weld non-ferrous metals such as magnesium, copper alloys and aluminium and thin sections of stainless steel and as the technique gives the experienced welder greater control over the weld it has some advantages over MIG welding in that it can produce even higher quality and stronger welds. As noted in the preface, the Committee on New Sensor Technologies: Materials and Applications was asked to identify novel sensor materials that could benefit the manufacture and operation of advanced systems for the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and to identify research and development (R&D) efforts that could accelerate the development and incorporation of these emerging sensor materials in particular applications with potentially high payoff. To provide a foundation for its recommendations in these areas, the committee began by assessing the current status of sensor technologies. Early in this assessment, the committee found that applications, not materials, drive new sensor development. Therefore the committee identified a conceptual framework that could relate sensor materials to application needs within which the importance of particular sensor materials could be determined.